Panthera tigris
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Taxonomy [back to top]
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CARNIVORA FELIDAE
Genus: Panthera
Species: tigris
Scientific Name: Panthera tigris
English Name: Tiger
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Local Name: Bagh, Baghro Mama, Dora Bagh, Bara-shial, Gobagha, Goira Goma, LohaFaitta, Machak(Garo), Khaiagri (Marma), Pri(Mro)
Synonyms: Felis tigris Linnaeus, 1758
Taxonomic Others: -
Taxonomic Notes: Bangladesh population of tigers belongs to P. t. tigris(Linnaeus, 1758) subspecies referred to as the Bengal Tiger, is a valid subspecies from the time it was founded by Linnaeusand it has recently been well established by the DNA analysis (Luo et al. 2004). According to them the Bengal Tiger probably arrived in the Indian subcontinent approximately 12,000 years ago.
Group: Mammals

Assessment Information [back to top]
Category Critically Endangered (CR)
Criteria CR A1bcd ver 3.1
Justification Tiger used to occur in and around all the forested areas of Bangladesh until the 1950s and in many villages up to the beginning of 20th century (Mitra 1957, Khan 1985, 1987a, 1987b, 1996, Khan and Chowdhury 2003, Khan 2011). Village-grove-dwelling tigers completely disappeared when the last tiger was shot in Banglabandha, Panchagarh, in 1962 (Khan 1987ab).The Sal forest population decimated by 1980s when those in the forests of the hill districts by the same period too. In these two forest ecosystems the decline is nearly 100 percent. Thankfully, the population in the Sundarbans appears to have stabilized since 1990s. Various estimates indicated the Tiger numbers between 106 and 500 (Ahmad et al. 2009, Khan 2011, 2014, Bangladesh Forest Department 2015 in litt.). In view of the disappearance of all populations from the village groves, mixed evergreen and Sal forests and being down to a single population restricted only to the Bangladesh and India parts of the Sundarbans, its unabated poaching and habitat destructions Bengal Tiger in Bangladesh has been categorized as Critically Endangered.
Date Assessed 15/12/2014
History Critically Endangered (IUCN-Bangladesh 2000).

Geographic Range [back to top]
Global Range It is native to Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russian Federation, Thailand and Vietnam. It is possibly extinct in Korea(DPR) and extinct in Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Singapore, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan (Tilson and Seal 1987).
Bangladesh Only viable population is in the Sundarbans in the southwest of Bangladesh, but tigers are rarely sighted in the bordering areas of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (particularly in Kassalong Reserved Forest and Sangu Wildlife Sanctuary) and very rarely in the bordering areas of Greater Sylhet (particularly Patharia Hill Reserved Forest) straying from the neighbouring forests in India.
Extent of Occurrence 6,298 km²
Area of Occupancy 4,114 km²

Population [back to top]
Generation Time An average generation time is 5 years for Tigers (Smith and McDougal 1991).
Total Population 106-500 individuals in the Bangladesh Sundarbans (Ahmad et al. 2009, Khan 2011, Khan 2014, Bangladesh Forest Department 2015 in litt.).
Trend Decreasing globally.
Others -
Habitat and Ecology [back to top]
Habit Availability of a sufficient prey based on large ungulates (particularly deer and wild boar) is the key requirement of the Tiger. Tigers need to kill 50 large prey animals per year (Karanth et al. 2004). Tigers are opportunistic predators, however, and their diet includes primates, porcupines, birds, fish, rodents, insects, amphibians, reptiles, etc. Tigers are generally solitary, with adults maintaining exclusive territories, or home ranges. Adult female home ranges seldom overlap, whereas male ranges typically overlap from 1–3 females. Tiger home range and density depend on the prey abundance: densities range from 11.65 adult Tigers per 100 km² where prey is abundant to as low as 0.13–0.45 per 100 km² where prey is more thinly distributed (Nowell and Jackson 1996).
Habitat Tigers are found mainly in and around the forests of tropical Asia, although they historically occurred more widely in drier and colder climes. One subspecies, the Amur Tiger P.t. altaica, persists in the temperate forests of Russian Far East. The Sundarbans is the only mangrove habitat for Tigers in Bangladesh.
Niche Terrestrial.
Elevation 0 to 2 m above sea level in the Sundarbans, but the occurrence in the highest elevation was recorded at 4,500 m in Bhutan (Wang 2008).
Home Range Tiger home range size depends on prey abundance. In high density areas female home range averaged 20 km², while in low density areas it is as large as 450 km² (Sunquist and Sunquist 2002).
Active Period Active during night and day. In disturbed areas it is more nocturnal.
Host Plant
Others -

Threats [back to top]
Habit The destruction is considered as about 60% during last 40 years. It virtually disappeared from mixed evergreen and deciduoussal forests of Bangladesh.
Trade There is no legal trade, but a few tigers are killed every year for collecting skin and different body parts. Even three cubs were rescued from poachers in June 2012.
Hunting On average, 5 tigers are killed every year in and around the Sundarbans by poachers and angry villagers (Khan 2011). In both cases the skin, teeth and other body parts are taken for illegal trade.
Others Sea-level rise due to global warming, together with devastating cyclonescoud pose serious threat to the tigers in the Sundarbans. Isolated population, making it vulnerable to disease outbreak and genetic drift. Adverseeffect of oil spills, shipping routes through the Sundarbans and Coal-fired Rampal Power Project within about 10km of the Sundarbans.
Conservation Information [back to top]
Wildlife Legislation Included in Schedule-1 of Wildlife (Conservation and Security) Act, 2012.
Cites Included in Appendix-I.
Others National Animal of Bangladesh and India. Bangladesh is a party to the Global Tiger Recovery Programme (GTRP 2010).
Recommendation Research [back to top]
Research 1. In depth study of physiology of the Tiger in the Sundarbans as this is the only popopuation of it that lives in salt water environment andin the mangrove forest. 2. Regular monitoring of the Tiger and prey population densities. 3.Study on tiger-human interactions. 4. General biology, ecology and behaviour of the Tiger. 5. Study on status and distribution of the Tiger in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Management 1. Following Bangladesh Tiger Action Plan 2009-2017, the Government should formulate a separate tiger management strategy. 2. The Government should have a separate entity to manage the entire Sundarbans, inlcuding its wildlife, possibly under an umbrella of a new department of biodiversity or wildlife conservation. 3. Serious measures should be taken up for proper implementation of Bangladesh Wildlife (Conservation and Security) Act, 2012, so that there is no killing of the Tigerand prey in the Sundarbans.
Captive Stock About 20 Tigers are in captivity in the zoos and safari parks of Bangladesh. There is no Tiger known to occur in private custody in the country. Genetic status of these specimens need to be deteremined to find out its purity and future possibility of releasing back to man-made mangrove forests stocked with deer,wild boar and macaque.
Others Development of national capacity for monitoring, translocation, and other aspects of the Tiger and prey by training the Forest Department officials working in the Sundarbans. Ensure compensation for the loss of life and property of the people who enter into the Sundarbans and those who live around it.
Source/Reference [back to top]
Source Ahmad, I.U., Greenwood, C.J., Barlow, A.C.D., Islam, M.A., Hossain, A.N.M., Khan, M.M.H. and Smith, J.L.D. 2009. Bangladesh Tiger Action Plan 2009-2017. Bangladesh Forest Department, Ministry of Envirnment and Forests, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Chapron, G., Miquelle, D.G., Lambert, A., Goodrich, J.M., Legendre, S. and Clobert, J. 2008. The impact on tigers of poaching versus prey depletion. Journal of Applied Ecology 45(6): 1667-1674. Chundawat, R.S., Habib, B., Karanth, U., Kawanishi, K., Ahmad Khan, J., Lynam, T., Miquelle, D., Nyhus, P., Sunarto, S., Tilson, R. and Wang, S.. 2011. Panthera tigris. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. . Downloaded on 24 April 2014. GTRP. 2010. Global Tiger Recovery Program, 2010-2022. Thirteen Tiger Range Countries and Partners of the Global Tiger Initiative. World Bank, Washington DC. Karanth, K. U., Kumar, N. S., Nichols, J. D., Link, W. A. and Hines, J. E. 2004. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 4854-4858. Khan, M.A.R. 1985. Mammals of Bangladesh- a field guide. Nazma Khan, Dhaka. Pp.92. Khan, M.A.R. 1987a.Bangladesher Bonnyaprani ({in Bengali}: Wildlife of Bangladesh). Vol.1-3. Dhaka: Bangla Academy. Pp vol.-1:xvi + 169, vol.-2:xiii + 174 & vol.-3: x + 136. Khan, M.A.R. 1987b. The problem tiger of Bangladesh. In: R. L.Tilsonand Seal, U.S. (Editors). Tigers of the World. New Jersey, U.S.A.: Noyes Publications. 92-96 Pp. KHAN, M.A.R. 1996.Bangladesher Bonnyaprani ({in Bengali}:Wildlife of Bangladesh). Vol.1-3. Dhaka: Bangla Academy, [Reprinted version of 1987-edition with additions]. Pp vol.-1:xviii + 178, vol.-2:xvii + 188 & vol.-3: xv + 147. Khan, M. A. R., Khan, M. A. and Chowdhury, M.M. 2003. Banglar Bagh (Bengal Tiger). IUCN Bangladesh. Dhaka. Khan, M.M.H. 2011. Tigers in the Mangroves: Research and Conservation of the Tiger in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Arannayk Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Khan, R. (editor). 2014. Sundarban: Rediscovering Sundarban. Nymphaea, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Luo, S.J., Kim, J.H., Johnson, W.E., Van Der Walt, J., Martenson, J., Yuhki, N., Miquelle, D.G., Uphyrkina, O., Goodrich, J.M., Quigley, H., Tilson, R., Brady, G., Martelli, P., Subramaniam, V., Mcdougal, C., Hean, S., Huang, S.Q., Pan, W., Karanth, K.U., Sunquist, M., Smith, J.L.D. and O'Brien, S.J. 2004. Phylogeography and genetic ancestry of tigers (Panthera tigris). PLoS Biology 2: 2275-2293. Mitra, S.N. 1957. BanglarShikarPrani (Hunting animals ofBengal). West Bengal Government, Calcutta.Pp xxiv+139. Nowell, K. and Jackson, P. 1996. Wild Cats. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Cat Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Smith, J. L. D., McDougal, C. 1991. The Contribution of Variance in Lifetime Reproduction to Effective Population Size in Tigers. Conserv Biol.5(4):484–490 Sunquist, M. and Sunquist, F. 2002. Wild Cats of the World. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA. Tilson, R. L.and Seal, U.S. (Editors).1987.Tigers of the World. New Jersey, U.S.A.: Noyes Publications. Walston, J., Robinson, J.G., Bennett, E.L., Breitenmoser, U., da Fonseca G.A.B., Goodrich, J., Gumal, M., Hunter, L., Johnson, A., Karanth, K.U., Leader-Williams, N., MacKinnon, K., Miquelle, D., Pattanavibool, A., Poole, C., Rabinowitz, A., Smith, J.L.D., Stokes, E.J., Stuart, S.N., Vongkhamheng, C. and Wibisono, H. 2010. Bringing the tiger back from the brink - The six percent solution. PLoS Biology 8(9): e1000485. Wang, S.W. 2008. Understanding ecological interactions among carnivores, ungulates and farmers in Bhutan's JigmeSingyeWangchuck National Park. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University.
Citation Khan,M. A.R. and Khan, M.M.H. 2015. Cuon alpinus. In: IUCN Bangladesh, 2015. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 3.1
Assessment History [back to top]
Assessor/s Reza Khan and M. Monirul H. Khan
Associate Assessor/s -
Reviewer/s Md. Kamrul Hasan
Facilitator/s Mohammed Mostafa Feeroz
Entry Date 22/02/2015
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